On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the European Union experts present their analyses of historical developments and new economic challenges for the EU. After a reflection on historical dynamics, the contributors point out the dramatic economic shifts between Europe, Asia and the US. Representatives from major central banks (including the ECB), other leading banks, and academia analyze the dynamics of the Eurozone and financial market integration in the context of globalization and economic growth. Furthermore, the authors discuss the challenges of information and communication technologies by means of various country analyses. Moreover, the Schumpeterian prospects for Europe and the Lisbon Agenda, the long-term challenges of EU pension reforms, emission trading systems in the EU, and options for a new EU constitution are highlighted. At the bottom line of this EU analysis are major implications for investors, managers, policy-makers and the public at large in both the EU and the global economy.