This book is about the design of European research policy. The 7th Framework Programme has been drawn up at a time when citizens and governments see science and technology as a panacea for an increasingly long list of problems. It will be the most ambitious Programme to date, unprecedented in scope and scale, and signals a stronger role for European research. But the new Framework Programme represents just a small part of total public spending on R&D in the EU, the bulk of which is carried out by the national and regional authorities. Clearly, on its own, it cannot solve all Europes problems. What is needed, this book argues, is a New Deal for research in Europe involving the mobilisation of policy actors across all levels regional, national and European and their commitment to developing a more effective research system in Europe based on actions at the level where they have the greatest impact. This book is the first to present, from a viewpoint inside the European Commission, the nuts and bolts of how EU research policy is actually designed. It also provides a comprehensive analysis, on the basis of factual evidence, not only of the positive impacts of European research, but of the various criticisms that have been made of the Framework Programme.