Learning and adaption are key features of "real economies". Studying interesting real phenomena like innovation, industry evolution or the role of expectation formulation in financial markets thus necessitates novel methods of data analysis and modelling. This title covers statistical models of heterogeneity, artificial consumer markets, models of adaptive expectation formulation in financial markets and agent-based models of industry evolution, product diversification and energy markets. The joint findings are presented in a manner that is interesting both for readers with a background in economics/management and mathematics and statistics and also for non-expert readers because it allows them to grasp the ideas of modern management science. This book thus provides a unique integrated toolbox for building realistic agent-based models of learning and adaption in a variety of settings based on sound data analysis.