This book presents new and powerful advanced statistical methods that have been used in modern medicine, drug development, and epidemiology. Some of these methods were initially developed for tackling medical problems.All 29 chapters are self-contained. Each chapter represents the new development and future research topics for a medical or statistical branch. For the benefit of readers with different statistical background, each chapter follows a similar style: the explanation of medical challenges, statistical ideas and strategies, statistical methods and techniques, mathematical remarks and background and reference. All chapters are written by experts of the respective topics.