The papers in this volume summarize information about the most recent and effective techniques for treating diffcult functional problems and painful situations by using minimally invasive spinal surgery techniques. Spinal endoscopy both for diagnostic and treatment purposes is presented as well as microsurgical operations for spinal problems, intradiscal techniques for the treatment of disc degenerative pathology, and dynamic stabilization techniques together with an up-to-date review of physiopathology of the diseases. New trends in peripheral nerve surgery are presented. Also the problem of traumatic nerve lesions in different anatomical districts is analyzed with special attention on the theme of thoracic outlet syndrome. The posttraumatic aspects of this disease are discussed both in respect of its causative mechanisms, and its medicolegal aspects.