Advances made in microsurgical techniques during the last three decades have dramatically improved the treatment of complex limb injuries, such as a closed fracture covered by healthy tissue and a complex open fracture of the tibia. Microvascular transfers from the foot have revolutionized the treatment of digital amputations, and vascularized bone transfers are used in various indications.The microvascular techniques are still evolving. Many imaginative new flaps are being proposed to meet precisely the functional requirements of the various defects. Alternative anastomotic techniques are being investigated and the no-flow phenomenon has been extensively studied. Allotransplantation may be feasible in the future.This unique book is a result of the exchange of ideas among clinicians of various specialties noted for their innovations and basic researchers involved with the problems of microvascular reconstruction of upper and lower extremities. While most of the chapters are invited contributions, some are based on presentations made during an international symposium held in Brussels, Belgium, in 1997.