The HIV/AIDS epidemic is burgeoning among African American men and women. Despite comprising only 13% of the population, 50% of new HIV diagnoses in 2004 were among African Americans. Among women and men who have sex with men (MSM), African Americans are grossly disproportionately affected by this epidemic, and this trend shows no sign of abating. This book seeks to explore some of the contextual factors that contribute to this disparity as well as ways to intervene to slow the growth of the epidemic in the U.S.This volume will focus on the history and context of HIV/AIDS in African Americans and interventions targeting specific subpopulations including adolescents, heterosexual men and women, men who have sex with men, incarcerated populations, and injection drug users. Context chapters will focus on specific contextual and structural issues related to HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention in African Americans including disparities in incarceration, racism, economic issues and substance abuse. Intervention chapters will focus on best-evidence and promising-evidence based interventions targeting HIV prevention in African Americans. These chapters will address the latest in intervention strategies, program evaluation, cost effectiveness and qualitative research methods and will include risk reduction, risk assessment, and testing and counseling.