This volume contains 23 articles on algebraic analysis of differential equations and related topics, most of which were presented as papers at the international conference 'Algebraic Analysis of Differential Equations from Microlocal Analysis to Exponential Asymptotics' at Kyoto University in 2005. Microlocal analysis and exponential asymptotics are intimately connected and provide powerful tools that have been applied to linear and non-linear differential equations as well as many related fields such as real and complex analysis, integral transforms, spectral theory, inverse problems, integrable systems, and mathematical physics. The articles contained here present many new results and ideas, providing interested researchers and students with valuable suggestions and instructive guidance for their work. This volume is dedicated to Professor Takahiro Kawai, who is one of the creators of microlocal analysis and who introduced the technique of microlocal analysis into exponential asymptotics. This dedication is made on the occasion of Professor Kawai's 60th birthday as a token of deep appreciation of the important contributions he has made to the field. Introductory notes on the scientific works of Professor Kawai are also included.