Bringing together the recent and relevant contributions of over 125 scientists from industry, government, and academia in North America and Western Europe, Alternative Toxicological Methods explores the development and validation of replacement, reduction, and refinement alternatives (the 3Rs) to animal testing. Internationally recognized scientists present what has been accomplished thus far in developing acceptable alternatives to traditional animal toxicological assessment and provide potentially new initiatives.In over 40 chapters, the book addresses 7 themes, beginning with the validation and regulatory acceptance of alternatives in the US, the UK, and Western Europe. Then the book covers methods based on the mechanisms of eye irritation at the ocular surface, dermal toxicity testing, and assessing neurotoxicity. It also includes a case study in the use of alternatives to determine the mechanism of sulfur mustard action and discusses the role of transgenics and toxicokinetics in the development of alternative toxicity tests. Finally the book presents recent innovations in alternatives, including the use of archival data, and in silico techniques.Focusing on the science and not the politics, Alternative Toxicological Methods concisely discusses the application of state-of-the-art methods and explores cutting-edge research related to developing and validating alternatives to animal testing. This book will benefit toxicologists, cosmetic chemists, pharmacologists, experimental biologists, dermatologists, ophthalmologists, and regulatory officers in their quest for applying the 3Rs to the use of animals in toxicological testing of drug candidates, chemicals, and cosmetics.