Szemerédi's influence on today's mathematics, especially in combinatorics, additive number theory, and theoretical computer science, is enormous. This volume is a celebration of Szemerédi's achievements and personality, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. It exemplifies his extraordinary vision and unique way of thinking. A number of colleagues and friends, all top authorities in their fields, have contributed their latest research papers to this volume. The topics include extension and applications of the regularity lemma, the existence of k-term arithmetic progressions in various subsets of the integers, extremal problems in hypergraphs theory, and random graphs, all of them beautiful, Szemerédi type mathematics. It also contains published accounts of the first two, very original and highly successful Polymath projects, one led by Tim Gowers and the other by Terry Tao.