Nonlinear dynamics of complex processes is an active research field with large numbers of publications in basic research, and broad applications from diverse fields of science. Nonlinear dynamics as manifested by deterministic and stochastic evolution models of complex behavior has entered statistical physics, physical chemistry, biophysics, geophysics, astrophysics, theoretical ecology, semiconductor physics and -optics, etc. This field of research has induced a new terminology in science connected with new questions, problems, solutions and methods. New scenarios have emerged for spatio-temporal structures in dynamical systems far from equilibrium. Their analysis and possible control are intriguing and challenging aspects of the current research.The duality of fundamental and applied research is a focal point of its main attractivity and fascination. Basic topics and foundations are always linked to concrete and precise examples. Models and measurements of complex nonlinear processes evoke and provoke new fundamental questions that diversify and broaden the mathematical concepts and tools. In return, new mathematical approaches to modeling and analysis enlarge the scope and efficiency of applied research.