The theorem of Pythagoras, Euclid's "Elements", Archimedes' method to find the volume of a sphere: all parts of the invaluable legacy of ancient mathematics. But ancient mathematics was also about counting and measuring, surveying land and attributing mystical significance to the number six. This volume offers the first accessible survey of the discipline in all its variety and diversity of practices. The period covered ranges from the fifth century BC to the sixth century AD, with the focus on the Mediterranean region. Topics include:* mathematics and politics in classical Greece* the formation of mathematical traditions* the self-image of mathematicians in the Graeco-Roman period* mathematics and Christianity* and the use of the mathematical past in late antiquity.