This book is designed to meet the continued need to re-learn the principles of treatment of complex war injuries to the extremities in order to minimize post-traumatic and post-treatment complications and optimize functional recovery. Most of the chapters are based on the unique experience gained in the treatment of military personnel who have suffered modern combat trauma and civilian victims of terror attacks at a single, large level 1 trauma center. The remaining chapters present the experience of leading international authorities in trauma and reconstructive surgery. A staged treatment protocol is presented, ranging from primary damage control through to definitive functional limb reconstruction. The organization of medical aid, anesthesiology, diagnostic imaging, infection prophylaxis, and management of complications are reviewed, and a special chapter is devoted to the challenging dilemma of limb salvage versus amputation in the treatment of limbs at risk.