The carotid body arterial chemoreceptors constitute unique sensory receptors capable of rapidly monitoring the levels of arterial blood oxygen and carbon dioxide. Whenever necessary they initiate homeostatic reflexes aimed to correct the detected deviations. Chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body constitute ideal models to study the entire processes of O2-sensing as well as CO2-sensing. The present book represents an updated review of the physiology of the carotid body chemoreceptors. Most important, the book provides the trends in the field as it contains results in the topics that are at the frontiers of future developments in O2-sensing in chemoreceptor cells. Additionally, it contains data from studies carried in other O2-sensing tissues including pulmonary vasculature and erythropoietin producing cells as well as on central CO2/pH chemoreceptors. Arterial Chemoreceptors should be considered as a prime source of information and as a guideline to every researcher in the field of arterial chemoreception in the years to come. It is also an important source of information for researchers and clinicians in the fields of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension as well as for researchers in the field of erythropoietin and central chemoreceptors.