The biological wealth of our planet is represented by the biodiversity that surrounds us. Our future wellbeing depends on the care and conservation that we practice to protect and enhance that biodiversity, which resides mostly in developing countries. Yet, the holders of traditional knowledge remain poor, while those exploiting it commercially become prosperous. As we utilize recombinant DNA technology to achieve food security and other goals, serious apprehension has arisen in the public mind with regard to the impact of genetically modified crops on our environment and health. Similarly, the long-term impact of gene therapy is not known either. These dilemmas and their ethical implications are examined in this book in the context of intellectual property rights and international cooperation.