In the last decade, great advances have been made in fundamental research and in the applications of bioluminescence and chemiluminescence. These techniques have become vital tools for laboratory analysis. Bioluminescence imaging has emerged as a powerful new optical imaging technique, offering real-time monitoring of spatial and temporal progression of biological processes in living animals. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) methodology has also emerged as a powerful technique for the study of protein-protein interactions. Luciferase reporter gene technology facilitates monitoring of gene expression and is used to probe molecular mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression. Chemiluminescence detection and analysis have also found diverse applications in life science research; for example, chemiluminescent labels and substrates are now widely used in immunoassay and nucleic acid probe-based assays.The latest advances in this exciting field, from fundamental research to cutting-edge applications, are explored in this most recent volume of the biannual symposium series, the Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence. The volume highlights advances in fundamental knowledge of luciferase-based bioluminescence, photoprotein-based bioluminescence, fundamental aspects and applications of chemiluminescence, luminescence imaging, fluorescence quantum dots and other inorganic fluorescent materials, phosphorescence and ultraweak luminescence, and instrumentation for measurement and imaging of luminescence.