This volume contains the contributions of the keynote speakers to the BIOMAT 2005 symposium, as well as a collection of selected papers by pioneering researchers. It provides a comprehensive review of the mathematical modeling of cancer development, Alzheimer's disease, malaria, and aneurysm development. Various models for the immune system and epidemiological issues are analyzed and reviewed. The book also explores protein structure prediction by optimization and combinatorial techniques (Steiner trees). The coverage includes bioinformatics issues, regulation of gene expression, evolution, development, DNA and array modeling, and small world networks.