The present book represents a compilation of the major contributions of a NATO workshop on: Bioremediation of soils contaminated with aromatic compounds and took place in Tartu, Estonia. It demonstrated the importance and necessity of interdisciplinary research in modern environmental biotechnology. Next to the classical fields (microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology) other aspects such as genome analysis and bioinformatics will become much more important in the near future. All aspects of this development are represented in this volume. Therefore, it can be seen as a major step forward as it fostered an intensive discussion between scientists of all these fields of environmental biotechnology.