The 2004 and 2007 enlargements pushed the EU's external border further east as well as closer to unstable areas in the western Balkans. With future enlargements unlikely in the short-term, the EU faces new challenges in securing stable relationships with these neighbouring countries, while not fostering false hopes of early accession. The Boundaries of EU Enlargement examines approaches such as the European Neighbourhood Policy, the Stability Pact for South-Eastern Europe, and the 'strategic partnership' with Russia as tools in this process. While the extension of European values and the application of conditionality continue to be important components of EU policies in dealing with these countries, the credibility and effectiveness of these approaches has declined, particularly in the relationship with Russia. Authors explore the dynamics underlying Russia's new self-assertion in relation to the EU and the West, as well as the impact of the 'Russian factor' on the EU's relations with other neighbours such as Ukraine and Moldova.