The goal of this book is to make a link between fundamental research in the field of cognitive neurosciences, which now benefits from a better knowledge of the neural foundations of cerebral processing, and its clinical application, especially in neurosurgery itself able to provide new insights into brain organization.The anatomical bases are presented, advances and limitations of the different methods of functional cerebral mapping are discussed, updated models of sensorimotor, visuospatial, language, memory, emotional, and executive functions are explained in detail. In the light of these data, new strategies of surgical management of cerebral lesions are proposed, with an optimization of the benefitrisk ratio of surgery. Finally, perspectives about brain connectivity and plasticity are discussed on the basis of translational studies involving serial functional neuroimaging, intraoperative cortico-subcortical electrical mapping, and biomathematical modeling of interactions between parallel distributed neural networks.

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