The last decade has seen a dramatic shift in anticancer drug research towards agents that aim to target selectively key regulatory and signaling processes known to drive tumorigenesis. A number of these newer agents have now been introduced into clinical practice. This volume reviews advances in cancer chemotherapy research over the last 10 years and will be of interest to scientists engaged in drug research in the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology and startup companies, academia and government institutions. Chapters written by leading experts in their field reflect a range of current medicinal chemistry approaches to small molecule drugs, including anti-hormonal therapy, growth factor inhibition, survival signaling, cell cycle inhibition, anti-angiogenics and anti-nvasives. Each chapter aims to cover the drug target and biological rationale, chemotypes, clinical status and future prospects in this rapidly developing area of drug research.