Endocannabinoids control most of the body functions, and in the brain, they modulate neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, confer neuroprotection, control metabolism, neuro- and neuritogenesis, survival, cognitive and motor functions as well as a plethora of other higher-order brain functions. Their fruitful therapeutic potential is recognized by cannabinoid researchers and pharmaceutical companies, respectively. The aim of this book is to help clinicians, neuroscientists, as well as students, understand the significance of the endocannabinoid system. This book, however, also will be very useful to those who already feel comfortable with the neuroscience of endocannabinoids. The book will introduce the reader to the up-to-date neurobiology of endocannabinoids and related systems, and will detail their pathophysiological role and therapeutic potential. Authors involved in clinical investigations present results of recent clinical trials, and the development of new therapeutic strategies and medicines.