The last two decades have seen ground-shifting changes in the epidemiology, genetics, diagnosis and management of renal cancer. Advances in diagnosis have led to many tumours being identified at an asymptomatic stage. There have also been parallel advances in treatment, such as nephron sparing procedures and radiologically guided ablative procedures. However, these changes have brought with them dilemmas such as our ability to evaluate the nature and aggressiveness of early stage tumours and how best to identify those patients who will benefit most from early treatment. This practical, clinically-oriented volume focuses on these current diagnostic and clinical challenges, making it relevant to all members of the multidisciplinary cancer care team.