This collection of essays, all published for the first time in English, provide a fresh look at the critical years of 1917-1920 when revolutionary activity and working-class unrest was rife in Europe. Written by leading authorities in the field, the collection gives wide European coverage, examining developments in the rural provinces and key cities of both Western and Central Europe in the period after the Great War. In-depth studies analyse the causes and extent of protest, the factors which contributed to its initial success and failure and the influence of the propertied classes and re-establishment of the old order. The introduction and conclusion draw the essays together, giving a clear account of the principal themes and establishing the comparative structure of the book. The essays provide major coverage of a crucial period of modern history and should raise many new questions about the events of those years.