The packaging of genomic DNA together with core histones, linker histones, and other functional proteins into chromatin play key roles in nuclear processes such as transcription, replication, repair and recombination. Research in the last two decades has unveiled the fact that many diseases involve an aberration of these processes at the chromatin level. Similarly, it is becoming clear that different processes such as chromatin assembly, remodeling of chromatin structure coupled to covalent modification of histone and non-histone proteins, chromatin modifying enzymes and last but not the least, important DNA-templated phenomena are the potential drug targets for diseases such as different types of cancer, neurodegenerrative diseases, AIDS etc. While, the earliest form of chemotherapy employed chromosomal DNA cleavage and modification, the study of epigenetic functions and therapy has recently emerged as a frontline research activity. At this juncture we felt the necessity to make an overview of the current research activities in the above areas. It is obvious that this collection starts with our current knowledge of chromatin structure. This work is the first endeavor to present different aspects encompassing the above theme.