Asia contains the bulk of the world's poor, as many as 500 million people. A significant fraction of these poor are chronically poor, which means that they and their families have been poor for years and will remain in poverty unless governmental policies are adopted which can lift them out of poverty.This book focuses on rural poverty and those countries in Asia with the largest number of chronically poor, including the two emerging superpowers of China and India, other countries of South Asia and the Mekong region as well as Indonesia and Philippines in Southeast Asia. Systematic analysis of who is poor, where they live, and why they are poor is carried out. Microeconomic, sector and macroeconomic policies which have been adopted to address this important social issue are also discussed. Through specific country analysis, the book outlines additional concrete measures that can be taken to reduce chronic poverty and improve the welfare of these people.