The field of sleep medicine is growing rapidly, and the clinical pharmacology of sleep is gaining much attention from sleep physicians. Many new drugs are in the process of being developed and tested for their possible usefulness in the treatment of sleep disorders. The opportunity for further advancement in this field is very promising. This volume covers the clinical and pharmacological treatment of several important sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and periodic limb movement syndrome. It further addresses the use of sleep medications in children, adolescents, and in the elderly. It offers a comprehensive overview of the currently available hypnotic medications and covers aspects of chronopharmacology and its implications for the pharmacology of sleep. It also reviews the basic science of sleep and sleep disorders, and thus the potential development of new pharmacological approaches.