This book collects the publications of Shinya lnoué, pioneering cell biophysicist and winner of the 2003 International Prize for Biology. The articles cover the discovery, and elucidate the behavior in living cells, of the dynamic molecular filaments which organize the cell and play a central role in cell division. Other articles report on the development of microscopes, especially those using polarized light and digital image enhancement, which make possible studies of the ever-changing molecular architecture directly in living cells. This book also contains many high quality photo-micrographs as well as an appended DVD with an extensive collection of video movies of active living cells. After training in Tokyo and at Princeton University, Dr Inoué has held teaching positions at the University of Washington, Tokyo Metropolitan University, University of Rochester, Dartmouth Medical School, and University of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and currently holds the title of Distinguished Scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.