The recent environmental concerns as well as the struggle against chemical terrorism demand new protection technologies and/or improvement of existing ones, e.g., adsorption. Adsorption is an established industrial separation technique used both in bulk separations and purifications, and is particularly suited for the solution of those problems. The new challenges call for new, more efficient and selective adsorbents. To accomplish these needs, new directions point to the development of adsorbents of a combined or hybrid nature. This book constitutes an up-to-date review of the latest achievements in the synthesis, characterization and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic materials and of carbon and combined adsorbents. The modeling of the adsorption process, including the simulation of carbon masks used for both civil and military protection purposes is also addressed.