This book provides a guide to some of the many commercial fishes of the Eritrean Red Sea and the marine environment they inhabit. This guide is designed as a working tool for fisheries workers, investors and a general reader who is interested in identifying some of the many different fish species of the Eritrean Red Sea. This book will play a part in the wise and sustainable exploitation of the fisheries resources of the country and hence contribute to global, regional and local conservation of the fishery resources. A total of 221 species belonging to 63 families from crustaceans, cephalopods, cartilaginous and bony fishes (including ornamental fishes) are described and illustrated with their colour pictures. This book is based on many years of research data collected in the Eritrean fisheries database.