There are many difficulties hindering western scientists from becoming acquainted with Russian scientific literature, including both political and language barriers. Russian science has a long and proud tradition going back as far as Peter the Great and the founding of the Russian Academy of Science in 1725. However, Russian neuroscientists from the 19th and 20th centuries are hardly recognised in the western world. Complex Brain Functions covers many avenues of contemporary research in Russian neuroscience. The chapters range from basic research at the cellular level to studies of higher brain functions in animals and humans, including psychopharmacology and neurochemistry and the brain basis of human mental functions as well as papers with a more philosophical content.