This book focuses on the successes and difficulties of nonlinear studies, particularly in the areas of Mind Sciences. It atttempts to answer the following questions: is an interdisciplinary contamination of complexity studies in different disciplines useful? Does this contamination originate in a transdisciplinary toolbox of methods and models which is worth calling it “Nonlinear Science”? What are the relations between the metaphoric approach and the mathematical approach in natural sciences and humanities? Complexity in the Life Sciences represents a fundamental workbench for these kinds of problems. The fascinating challenge in these areas is represented by studies on mind functioning.