This is the book version of a special issue of the International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, reviewing recent work in the field of compound semiconductor integrated circuits. There are fourteen invited papers covering a wide range of applications, frequencies and materials. These papers deal with digital, analog, microwave and millimeter-wave technologies, devices and integrated circuits for wireline fiber-optic lightwave transmissions, and wireless radio-frequency microwave and millimeter-wave communications. In each case, the market is young and experiencing rapid growth for both commercial and millitary applications. Many new semiconductor technologies compete for these new markets, leading to an alphabet soup of semiconductor materials described in these papers. The book also includes three papers focused on radiation effects and reliability in III-V semiconductor electronics, which are useful for reference and future directions. Moreover, reliability is covered in several papers separately for certain process technologies.