Well-recognized computational geneticists review and assess both currently available and developing tools for the rapid identification of the genetic basis for susceptibility to disease. The authors introduce a new computational approach that makes it possible to identify the genetic basis for differences in physiologic or pathologic responses among inbred mouse strains, thus facilitating more rapid genetic discovery. The focus is on the haplotype-based computational genetic analysis method and its application to inbred mouse strains. Reviewing murine models of asthma, lung disease, osteoporosis, and substance abuse, the contributors provide an overview of available mouse models, what has been learned from them, and which new models must be developed to advance our understanding of these diseases. They also describe how genetic analysis of human populations has yielded information on the genetic basis for susceptibility to asthma and other inflammatory diseases.