This monograph provides a review of the optimization concepts that underlie fuzzy programming; multiobjective programming; stochastic programming; and genetic algorithms. The authors then apply these concepts to noncooperative decision making in hierarchical organizations, using multiobjective and two-level linear programming, and then consider cooperative decision making in hierarchical organizations. They then present applications in a work force assignment problem; a transportation problem; and an inventory and production problem in supply chain management. After examining possible future directions in two-level programming, including use of metaheuristics and genetic algorithms to help manage large numbers of integer decision variables, they present conclusions.

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