Mounting evidence in the past decade indicates that innate immunity mediates functions above and beyond first-line defense against infection. It is now appreciated that innate immune mechanisms are critically involved in the development of adaptive immunity and, moreover, the regulation of diverse physiological and homeostatic processes. The latter explains why deregulation of innate immunity may lead to pathological disorders that are not necessarily or directly related to host defense. This Volume compiles the latest advances in this rapidly evolving field as presented by eminent scientists at the 7th International Aegean Conference on Innate Immunity in Rhodes, Greece. It includes topics related to the biology and function of Toll-like and other pattern-recognition receptors, complement and its crosstalk with other physiological systems, inflammatory mechanisms and diseases, natural killer cells, and the cooperative interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells. This book is an excellent source of information for researchers and clinicians with interests in immunology, host-microbe interactions, and infectious and inflammatory diseases.