When first published this book was one of the first collections of empirical research in the area of the knowledge transmitted in schools and the responses of students to it. It includes studies of the histories of particular school subjects and of how the knowledge they embody is presented in the classroom. Attention is also given to the effects of gender stereotypes among teachers and pupils, both on pupils' selection of courses to study and on their reactions to particular subjects in the classroom. The other major topic in this collection is the way external examinations shape the nature of the school curriculum and how it is taught. There are studies of how pupils and teachers adapt to the exam system, and of how that system and its role in the accountability of schools, have changed in recent years. The articles collected here throw into relief important aspects of what is taught in schools, and they do this on the basis of a solid foundation of empirical research.