This section discusses IT audit cybersecurity and privacy control activities from two focus areas. First is focus on some of the many cybersecurity and privacy concerns that auditors should consider in their reviews of IT-based systems and processes. Second focus area includes IT Audit internal procedures. IT audit functions sometimes fail to implement appropriate security and privacy protection controls over their own IT audit processes, such as audit evidence materials, IT audit workpapers, auditor laptop computer resources, and many others. Although every audit department is different, this section suggests best practices for an IT audit function and concludes with a discussion on the payment card industry data security standard data security standards (PCI-DSS), a guideline that has been developed by major credit card companies to help enterprises that process card payments prevent credit card fraud and to provide some protection from various credit security vulnerabilities and threats. IT auditors should understand the high-level key elements of this standard and incorporate it in their review where appropriate.