This volume explores the relationship between Darwinian science and classical liberalism, past and present. The volume begins with chapters examining classical thinkers like John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Adam Smith. Later chapters provide analyses of present-day classical liberals, focusing especially on F.A. Hayek, Thomas Sowell, and Larry Arnhart, the most prominent advocates of 'contemporary' classical liberalism. Thematically, the volume falls into three parts. The first section examines foundational topics, arguing that Darwinism and classical liberalism hold incompatible visions of morality, human volition, individual autonomy, and the origin of order in economics and biology. The second section turns to contemporary applications, contending that Darwinism and classical liberalism are at odds in their views of (or implications about) limited government, vital religion, economic freedom, and the traditional family. This section also argues that, historically, Darwinian theory negatively impacted classical liberalism and Western civilization. The final section of the volume contains alternative perspectives to the views expressed in the first two sections. These chapters hold that Darwinian science simply has little to say about classical liberalism, an evolutionary account of human consciousness and volition is fully compatible with the individual choice presupposed in classical liberalism, and evolutionary science, unlike religious alternatives, provides a strong foundation for freedom, morality, and the traditional family.