Much of the recent progress in the solid earth sciences is based on interpretation of a range of geophysical and geological observations in terms of the properties and deformation of earth materials. This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on current debates are also included to bring readers to the cutting-edge of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.