DNA topoisomerases represent an essential family of DNA processing enzymes and a large number of topoisomerase inhibitors are used clinically for the treatment of various human cancers. Novels drugs are in clinical development both against type I and type II topoisomerases. The book will include basic biochemical and structural reviews for the cancer-relevant topoisomerases. It will describe how topoisomerase dysfunctions can damage the genome and increase the risk of cancers, and the involvement of topoisomerases in programmed cell death. The book will also present the various topoisomerase inhibitors in clinical use and development and their molecular and cellular mechanisms of action.