This book has been arranged such that any analytical chemist can start analytical experiments for a drug or poison in a crude biological matrix, even if she/he has no experience of analyzing that compound. This is particularly useful in view of the acute risk of terrorist attacks in the world today. Special care has been given to clarify the origins (manufacturers) or synthetic methods for chemicals to be used to reproduce the experiments. The specimens to be analyzed are presumed to be complicated matrices (not clean waste or ground water) such as whole blood, tissues or urine, which contain cells, membranes, proteins and lipids in every chapter. Therefore, procedures for extraction of a drug or poison have been given in great detail. Each chapter is composed of a rigid internal structure comprising Introduction, Reagents and their Preparation, Conditions of Analytical Instruments, Procedures, Assessment of the Methods, Poisoning Case Examples, Toxic and Lethal Concentrations in Human Specimens, Notes and References. The chapters have been written by 67 authors who are experts engaged in analysis of each compound. This type of book for analysis of drugs and poisons has not been published elsewhere in the world.