This book examines the relationship between governments, labor and business in central and eastern Europe as capitalism develops. This triple forum for social dialogue in Bulgaria and Poland is described as 'tripartism', a new post-communist species of state-society interaction and a brand of capitalism distinct from American neo-liberalism, western European neo-corporatism and Japanese statism. These forums are understood as institutionalizing of conflict among post-communist social actors in the industrial arena, and consist of three specific elements: political negotiations, civic participation, and multi-level bargaining. The book explains variations in the establishment and functioning of tripartite institutions across central and eastern European countries, industries and regions, with corporatist legacies and legacies of extrication paths from state socialism. Integration into the international economy and polity, especially European integration, has somewhat diminished differences and, in the long run, is helping preserve and maintain social dialogue structures in the central and eastern European region.