This book offers a comprehensive empirical analysis of educational inequalities and their consequences on individual labor market outcomes for men and women in France and Germany, two countries with different education systems. Using microdata from the two countries, the analyses mainly rely on econometric methods. After a detailed comparison of the French and German education systems, the social determinants of school and post-school attainment are analyzed. Then, the extent to which education reduces the unemployment risk is examined, distinguishing between risk of entering unemployment, unemployment duration and recurrence of unemployment episodes. Finally, evidence is given on the impact of education on individual earnings prospects.