There is no doubt that states have the primary responsibility for education. However, this does not mean that communities are passive recipients of education services designed and delivered by the state. In many places, the state is ignorant or unwilling to respond to community needs when planning education policies. By failing to develop curricula that correspond with the needs of poor and marginalized sections of society, some states provide education systems that many see as irrelevant or hostile. In some areas of the world, this has lead to a decline in confidence in government by some groups, and has lead to the formation of social movements. There are many such social mobilizations in the field of promoting alternative education. This edited volume evaluates the relevance of the dominant theoretical discourse to understand the origin and outcome of the social actions for education undertaken in various regions of the world.