This book shifts the debate on knowledge transfers within multinational corporations (MNCs) back to its core: How can we increase the effectiveness of cross-border transfers of knowledge? It questions two common assumptions, namely that knowledge transfer per se works effectively; and that all flows in the MNC can be managed uniformly. The strategic position of MNC units in the organizational network and the nature of knowledge - for example, marketing know-how and technology know-how - require differentiated management approaches. To apply these ideas to practice, several perspectives on international knowledge flows, from control issues to cultural barriers, are discussed and integrated into a unifying framework. The large-scale empirical study is based on a sample of leading MNCs, and results show which managerial mechanisms have to be implemented to increase the benefit from knowledge transfers as well as employees' satisfaction with knowledge management.