The scattering of high-energy electrons from nuclear and nucleon targets provides a microscope for examining the structure of these tiny objects. The best evidence we have on what nuclei and nucleons actually look like comes from electron scattering. This book examines the motivation for electron scattering and develops the theoretical analysis of the process. It discusses our current theoretical understanding of the underlying structure of nuclei and nucleons at appropriate levels of resolution and sophistication, and summarizes present experimental electron scattering capabilities. Only a working knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity is assumed, making this a suitable textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses. It will also provide a valuable summary and reference for researchers already working in electron scattering and other areas of nuclear/particle physics.