Emission lines provide a powerful tool to study the physical properties and chemical compositions of astrophysical objects in the Universe, from the first stars to objects in our Galaxy. The analysis of emission lines allows us to estimate the star formation rate and initial mass function of ionizing stellar populations, and the properties of active galactic nuclei. This book presents lectures from the eighteenth Winter School of the Canary Islands Astrophysics Institute (IAC), devoted to emission lines and the astrophysical objects that produce them. Written by prestigious researchers and experienced observers, it covers the formation of emission lines and the different sources that produce them. It shows how emission lines in different wavelengths, from ultraviolet to near infrared, can provide essential information on understanding the formation and evolution of astrophysical objects. It also includes practical tutorials for data reduction, making this a valuable reference for researchers and graduate students.