Economic agents interact in structural relationships through time and space. This work starts from the empirical observation that all three dimensions, namely time, space, and structural functional forms, are important for an integrative framework of modern empirical analysis in regional science. The work thus aims at combining up-to-date econometric tools from the fields of spatial econometrics, panel time-series analysis and structural simultaneous equation modelling to analysis the different research questions at hand. Most of the topics dealt within this work start from a concrete empirical problem, while problem solving also aims at generating some new knowledge in a methodological way, e.g. by the complementary use of Monte Carlo simulation studies to compare the empirical performance of different estimators for specific data samples. Following a first introductory chapter, the work is structured in three parts addressing major issues in building up a stylized regional economic model such as interregional migration, factor and final demand estimation. All empirical applications use German regional data.