Will international wars where energy resources play a central role continue to hold sway over life and death for industrialized nations, or is this a transient phase in the evolution of industrial societies? This book answers this question by tracing the history of energy and conflict from antiquity, through the epic hot and cold wars of the twentieth century, to expected outcome of the war in Iraq. It points the way to the end of wars over control of fossil fuels, and demonstrates why these may be the last major international wars over other resources as well.This book is a must-read for anyone interested in the future of energy use or international conflict. Readers will find in it an illuminating overview of the sweep of historical events. The book further provides a compelling explanation of how a thorough understanding of the evolutionary direction of these events challenges the conventional wisdom that resource wars are endemic to the nature of industrial society, thus offering a fresh view on one of the most important challenges of our time.